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DNA origami: A precise measuring tool for optimal antibody effectiveness
Jan, 15th 2019, 13:42 from phys.org
Scientists at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, in collaboration with researchers at University of Oslo, Norway, have demonstrated the most accurate distance between densely packed antigens in order to get the strongest bond to antibodies in the immune system. The study, which is published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, may be of significance to the development of vaccines and immunotherapy used in cancer. Vaccines work by training the immune system with harm...

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DNA origami can accurately measure how antibodies interact with several antigens
Jan, 14th 2019, 18:55 from news-medical.net
Using DNA origami - DNA-based design of precise nanostructures - scientists at Karolinska Institutet in collaboration with researchers at University of Oslo, have been able to demonstrate the most accurate distance between densely packed antigens in order to get the strongest bond to antibodies in the immune system. The study, which is published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, may be of significance to the development of vaccines and immunotherapy used in cancer. Vaccines work by training ...

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New discovery casts doubt on plasma membrane models
Jan, 14th 2019, 12:19 from news-medical.net
Like planets, the body's cell surfaces look smooth from a distance but hilly closer up. An article published in Communications Biology describes implications, unknown to date, of the way data from cell surfaces are normally interpreted; i.e. as if they lacked topographic features. When Earth is studied from space, its surface looks smooth, but on zooming in we notice the mountains and valleys. The same applies to cells; without magnification they look smooth, but a closer look reveals both ridge...

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Droplet Barcoding-Based Single Cell Transcriptomics of Adult Mammalian Tissues | Protocol
Jan, 10th 2019, 21:00 from jove.com
With the development of high throughput single cell technology1,2 and advancements in user-friendly bioinformatics tools over the last decade3, a new field of high-resolution gene expression analysis has emerged – single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq). The study of single cell gene expression was first developed to identify heterogeneity within defined cell populations, such as in stem cells or cancer cells, or to identify rare populations of cells4,5, which were unattainable using traditional ...

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Identification of Functional Protein Regions Through Chimeric Protein Construction | Protocol
Jan, 8th 2019, 22:00 from jove.com
The goal of this protocol encompasses the design of chimeric proteins in which distinct regions of a protein are replaced by their corresponding sequences in a structurally similar protein, in order to determine the functional importance of these regions. Such chimeras are generated by means of a nested PCR protocol using overlapping DNA fragments and adequately designed primers, followed by their expression within a mammalian system to ensure native secondary structure and post-translational mo...

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Stem cells used to trace autism back to the formation of neurons
Jan, 8th 2019, 21:45 from arstechnica.com
While autism is a spectrum of disorders, it's clear that the more significant cases involve physical differences in the brain's nerve cells. Several studies have reported an excess in connections among neurons in the brains of people with autism. But when does this happen? Changes in neural connections are key components of learning and memory, and they can happen at any point in life; major reorganizations in connectivity occur from before birth up to the late teens. Anecdotal reports of autism...

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Feeding Your Immune System - Keeping Your Mitochondria Healthy
Jan, 8th 2019, 14:11 from thrive-magazine.co.uk
Nourishing your mitochondria may be fundamental to staying healthy this winter. Thrive Expert Victoria Hamilton gives some tips on keeping these power houses inside our cells in tip top shape. You may have come across the word ‘mitochondria’ recently or perhaps you recall it from a school biology lesson and know that its associated with your cells and energy production in the body. It’s a new area of focus in human health and not without due cause. A human cell is made up of many functions and o...

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Generating Recombinant Avian Herpesvirus Vectors with CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing | Protocol
Jan, 7th 2019, 21:00 from jove.com
Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) is an ideal viral vector for the generation of recombinant vaccines against a number of avian diseases, such as avian influenza (AI), Newcastle disease (ND), and infectious bursal disease (IBD), using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mutagenesis or conventional recombination methods. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has been successfully used in many settings for gene editing, including the manipulation of several larg...

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Fujifilm Cellular Dynamics to build $21 million stem cell plant in Madison | BizTimes Media Milwaukee
Jan, 3rd 2019, 19:15 from biztimes.com
Madison-based Fujifilm Cellular Dynamics Inc. announced today it plans to build a $21 million stem cell manufacturing plant in Madison. Fujifilm Cellular Dynamics is a U.S. subsidiary of Japanese electronics manufacturer Fujifilm Corp. FCD develops and produces human induced pluripotent stem cell technologies. At the new facility, it would industrialize the process of manufacturing the stem cells for use in regenerative medicine, both directly and through contract manufacturing, the company said...

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Proximity to muscle cells may promote spread of prostate cancer cells, NIH study suggests
Jan, 3rd 2019, 14:12 from medicalxpress.com
Proximity to nearby muscle cells may make prostate cancer cells more likely to invade nearby tissues and spread to other organs, according to an early study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. The presence of muscle cells appears to make cancer cells more likely to fuse two or more cancer cells into a single cell, thereby increasing their invasiveness and ability to spread. The study was led by Berna Uygur, Ph.D., of NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Healt...

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Researchers reveal cause of possible genetic problems in mitochondria
Jan, 3rd 2019, 13:45 from news-medical.net
A group of researchers from the Andalusian Centre for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER) has revealed the importance of eliminating any excess of defective products that might have accumulated in the mitochondria, as its presence generates mitochondrial instability and information loss on the mitochondrial genome. The study can bring new ways to understand the molecular basis of some human diseases that are stem from poor functioning of the mitochondria and, in this way, allow...

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The landscape of protein tyrosine phosphatase (Shp2) and cancer
Dec, 27th 2018, 07:00 from eurekalert.org
As the proteomics technology develops and human genomic analysis becomes easier to execute, molecules involved in the regulation of biochemical signaling pathways have become interesting subjects for researchers. Earlier research was based on assumptions that metabolic cascades such as phosphorylation was linear. However, current studies indicate a multi-network signaling cascade. The interlinked signals performing in synchrony can be observed being responsive to a stimulus during physiological ...

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Autophagy and mitochondria: Targets in neurodegenerative disorders
Dec, 26th 2018, 07:00 from eurekalert.org
This article by Dr. Ashutosh Kumar et al. is published in CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets, Volume 17, Issue 9, 2018 Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that can cause the death of a cell in certain conditions. Autophagy is necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis by clearing out damaged cellular organelles and proteins through certain pathways. Mitochondria are cell organelles responsible for the constant supply of energy to maintain cellular physiology and energy metabolis...

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A deeper understanding of chromosome capping could improve therapies for both cancer and aging
Dec, 20th 2018, 15:53 from medicalxpress.com
The zipper style of DNA replication means that the tips of chromosomes cannot be copied, leaving them slightly shorter with each cell division. To prevent loss of genetic information, chromosome ends are protected by caps called telomeres—repetitive, gene-free regions (see image). Each division shortens the telomeres, until they disappear and the cell can no longer divide. In cells that need to divide indefinitely, such as stem cells, an enzyme called telomerase extends telomeres, allowing cells...

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Researchers uncover genes that play a key role in the inactivation of X chromosomes
Dec, 19th 2018, 14:43 from news-medical.net
In cell biology, men and women are unequal: men have an X chromosome, while women have two. How can we get around this difference? Geneticists from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, turned to some historic research dating from the 1960s to sequence skin and blood cells one by one. They observed how the second X chromosome in females gradually becomes inactive in order to avoid an overdose of genes encoded by the X. They also found that several genes bypassed this inactivation, which...

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New genetic testing technology enhances precision of analysis of clinical biomarkers
Dec, 18th 2018, 16:31 from medicalxpress.com
Estonian scientists have announced the invention of a genetic testing technology to analyse the number of clinical biomarkers at the single-molecule level, which enhances the sensitivity of tests in precision medicine and will make them more affordable in future. The TAC-seq method, for which a patent is pending, is already being used in fertility clinics to determine the personal variations in the menstrual cycle for opportune embryo transfer. The new molecular ...

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Female biology – two X chromosomes and ovaries – extends life and protects mice from aging
Dec, 18th 2018, 16:01 from medicalxpress.com
Now, scientists at UC San Francisco have zeroed in on a possible genetic mechanism for this highly durable phenomenon, that – while it does not preclude the influence of other biological, social and environmental factors – suggests an important role for the second X chromosome, which is present in female mammals. The X chromosome contains many genes related to the brain, and it is crucial for survival. Without at least one X, an animal cannot live. The Y chromosome, present only in males, contai...

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Inflating cells to analyze organelle structure and function
Dec, 17th 2018, 17:23 from news-medical.net
By Sally Robertson, B.Sc.Dec 17 2018 Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. Researchers at the University of Geneva have developed a technique that enables visualization of cellular organelles at a resolution that has not previously been achievable in optical microscopy. Being able to see these structures would allow an improved understanding of how cells function, but achieving this has been a difficult challenge. Until now, fluorescence microscopy has not provided a resolution high enough to ob...

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Folate deficiency creates more damaging chromosomal abnormalities than previously known
Dec, 15th 2018, 06:07 from news-medical.net
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc.Dec 14 2018 Folate deficiency creates more problems in connection with DNA replication than researchers had hitherto assumed, researchers from the University of Copenhagen show in a new study. Once a person lacks folate, the damage caused by this cannot be reversed. The researchers therefore encourage people to be more aware of the level of folate in the blood. Folate deficiency can severely affect one of the most important processes in the body, cell division...

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Montana State researcher awarded grant for research of fluorescent proteins
Dec, 14th 2018, 07:00 from eurekalert.org
BOZEMAN -- A Montana State University doctoral student who is working on a way to improve a neuroscience tool that uses fluorescent proteins found in some jellyfish and coral has received a grant that will help fund her work. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke awarded a three-year F31 fellowship grant to Rosana Molina, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience in MSU's College of Letters and Science. The grant provides Molina with a stipend ...

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Researchers explore how glial cells develop in the brain from neural precursor cells
Dec, 10th 2018, 21:02 from news-medical.net
Two types of cells are active in the brain: nerve cells and glial cells. The latter have long been regarded primarily as supportive cells, but it is increasingly recognized that they play an active role in the communication between neurons in the brain. What is more, according to current research, glial cells are also involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. A research team led by Professor Benedikt Berninger of the Institute of Physiological Chemistry at the Mainz University M...

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Studying Protein Import into Chloroplasts Using Protoplasts | Protocol
Dec, 10th 2018, 20:00 from jove.com
The chloroplast is an essential organelle that is responsible for various cellular processes in plants, such as photosynthesis and the production of many secondary metabolites and lipids. Chloroplasts require a large number of proteins for these various physiological processes. Over 95% of chloroplast proteins are nucleus-encoded and imported into chloroplasts from the cytosol after translation on cytosolic ribosomes. Thus, the proper import or targeting of these nucleus-encoded chloroplast prot...

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Study sheds new light on microtubule binding proteins and microtubule dynamics
Dec, 7th 2018, 06:40 from news-medical.net
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc.Dec 6 2018 When bacteria or viruses enter the body, proteins on their surfaces are recognized and processed to activate T cells, white blood cells with critical roles in fighting infections. During T-cell activation, a molecular complex known as the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) moves to a central location on the surface of the T-cell. Microtubules have several important functions, including determining cell shape and cell division. Thus, MTOC repositio...

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Influenza A deliberately enhances levels of the human p53 protein to reduce anti-viral gene and protein expression
Nov, 30th 2018, 14:52 from medicalxpress.com
IAV remains a key challenge for global health resources, not least because of wide variations in symptom severity experienced by different people, even when they are infected by the same strain. This implies that there are host factors at play during the initial host-viral interaction. Ee Chee Ren, Bei Wang and their team at A*STAR's Singapore Immunology Network have worked for several years on the protein p53, which plays various roles in cancer, cellular stress responses, and host anti-viral r...

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Researchers produce six antibodies to combat Zika virus
Nov, 29th 2018, 07:00 from eurekalert.org
MAYWOOD, IL - Researchers have generated six Zika virus antibodies that could be used to test for and possibly treat a mosquito-borne disease that has infected more than 1.5 million people worldwide. The antibodies "may have the dual utility as diagnostics capable of recognizing Zika virus subtypes and may be further developed to treat Zika virus infection," corresponding author Ravi Durvasula, MD, and colleagues report in a study published in the journal PLOS ONE. Dr. Durvasula is professor and...

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Study reveals why mitochondria are often strangely shaped inside the brain
Nov, 28th 2018, 10:32 from news-medical.net
Reviewed by James Ives, MPsychNov 28 2018 Columbia neuroscientists have discovered why mitochondria, tiny power generators that keep our cells healthy, are often strangely shaped inside the brain. Mitochondria, which exist by the thousands in each of our body's 37 trillion cells, usually look like long interconnected tubes. But inside brain cells called neurons, they adopt two completely different shapes depending on their location within the cell: that same elongated, tubular shape and a su...

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First probabilistic atlas of thalamus nuclei to better understand the brain
Nov, 20th 2018, 20:21 from news-medical.net
A multidisciplinary study led by BCBL, a Basque research center, opens the door to the investigation of the structure and functions of human thalamic nuclei and their involvement in Alzheimer's, dyslexia, epilepsy, Huntington's and schizophrenia. The thalamus is one of the most important structures in the human brain. Its nuclei distribute the information of the motor apparatus and of all the senses of the human being, with the sole exception of smell. In addition, they are involved in many func...

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A new atlas of the thalamus nuclei to better understand the brain
Nov, 20th 2018, 15:55 from medicalxpress.com
The thalamus is one of the most important structures in the human brain. Its nuclei distribute the information of the motor apparatus and of all the senses of the human being, with the sole exception of smell. In addition, they are involved in many functions such as attention, awareness and perception. It´s importance is such that, if injured, the individual in question can go into a coma. Until now, whenever the activity of the thalamus was recorded, experts could only review it as a whole, wit...

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